Join Mark Kurusz as he shares an appreciation of history in the context of current CPB technology. Mr. Kurusz worked as a clinical perfusionist for 40 years and is an expert in cardiopulmonary bypass, intra-aortic balloon pumps, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and ventricular assist devices. His presentation, “May 6, 1953, Operative Report: Closure of a large interatrial septal defect…easily closed” honors the pioneers and how scholarship leads to insights.